Page 28 - Salem Magazine Spring 2011
P. 28

(5) Giardia lamblia. Pathogenic protozoa
that is widely distributed in nonpotable
water supplies. This organism can cause gastrointestinal illness (e.g. diarrhea, vomiting, cramps).
Radioactive Contaminants:
(6) Beta/photon emitters. Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit forms of radiation known as photons and beta radiation. Some people who drink water containing beta and photon emitters in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
(7) Alpha emitters. Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit a form of radiation known as alpha radiation. Some people who drink water containing alpha emitters in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
(8) Combined Radium 226/228. Some people who drink water containing radium 226 or 228 in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Inorganic Contaminants:
(9) Antimony. Some people who drink water containing antimony well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience increases in blood cholesterol and decreases in blood sugar.
(10) Arsenic. Some people who drink water containing arsenic in excess of the MCL over many years could experience skin damage or problems with their circulatory system, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
(11) Aluminum. People at risk for health problems include dialysis patients. Symptoms of chronic aluminum exposure include softening of the bones and brain dysfunction.
(12) Barium. Some people who drink water containing barium in excess of the MCL over many years could experience an increase in their blood pressure.
(13) Beryllium. Some people who drink water containing beryllium well in excess of the MCL over many years could develop intestinal lesions.
(14) Cadmium. Some people who drink water containing cadmium in excess of the MCL over many years could experience kidney damage.
(15) Chromium. Some people who use water containing chromium well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience allergic dermatitis.
(16) Copper. Copper is an essential nutrient, but some people who drink water containing copper in excess of the action level over
a relatively short amount of time could experience gastrointestinal distress. Some people who drink water containing copper in excess of the action level over many years could suffer liver or kidney damage. People with Wilson’s Disease should consult their personal doctor.
(17) Silver. Since silver is not a health benefit for living organisms in any way, the body has a low capacity for absorbing it. Low amounts of ionic silver water intake are not harmful
or life threatening in any way, but large intakes can prove to be extremely toxic. Water guidelines suggest an incredibly low amount of silver within drinking water because a high concentration of silver water can bond while boiling and create silver oxide. Silver water that contains silver nitrate can be even more harmful and cause dizziness, diarrhea, and vomiting.
(18) Chloride. Chlorides are not usually not harmful to people, however they can corrode metals and effect the taste of food products.
(19) Sulfate. Health concerns regarding sulfate in drinking water have been raised because of reports that diarrhea may be associated with the ingestion of water containing high levels of sulfate.
(20) pH. The U.S. E.P.A. does not regulate pH levels in drinking water, it is classified as a secondary water contaminant whose impact is considered aesthetic.
(21) Total dissolved solids. Total dissolved solids can give water a murky appearance and detract from the taste quality of the water.
(22) Iron. Elevated iron levels in water can cause stains in plumbing, laundry, and cooking utensils, and can impart objectionable tastes and colors to food.
(23) Manganese. Elevated manganese levels in water can cause stains in plumbing, laundry, and cooking utensils. Upon exposure to air
or other oxidants, manganese will usually precipitate black.
(24) Nickel. Nickel is not known to cause any
health problems when people are exposed to levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time
(25) Zinc. Harmful effects generally begin
at levels 10-15 times higher than the amount needed for good health. Large doses taken by mouth even for a short time can cause stomach cramps, nausea, and vomiting.
(26) Color. Color in drinking water is classified as a secondary water contaminant whose impact is considered aesthetic.
(27) Sodium. An essential element required for normal body function including nerve impulse transmission, fluid regulation, and muscle contraction and relaxation. However, in excess amounts, sodium increases individual risk of hypertension, heart disease, and stroke. One of the chief sources of sodium is the consumption of salt; therefore salt restrictions are often recommended as a first-line of treatment for individuals suffering from these conditions.
(28) Chlorine. Some people who use drinking water containing chlorine well in excess of EPA’s standard could experience irritating effects to their eyes and nose and stomach discomfort.
(29) Fluoride. Some people who drink water containing fluoride in excess of the MCL over many years could get bone disease, including pain and tenderness of the bones. Children may get mottled teeth.
(30) Lead. Infants and children who drink water containing lead in excess of the action level could experience delays in their physical or mental development. Children could show slight deficits in attention span and learning abilities. Adults who drink this water over many years could develop kidney problems or high blood pressure. If present, elevated levels of lead can cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and young children. Lead in drinking water is primarily from materials and components associated with service lines and home plumbing. The City of Salem Water Department is responsible for providing high quality drinking water, but cannot control the variety of materials used
in plumbing components. When your water
has been sitting for several hours, you can minimize the potential for lead exposure by flushing your tap 15 to 30 seconds or until it becomes cold or reaches a steady temperature before using water for drinking or cooking. If you are concerned about lead in your water, you may wish to have your tested. Information on lead in drinking, testing methods, and steps you can take to minimize exposure is available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline or at http://ww.epa.gov./safewater/lead.
(31) Mercury (inorganic). Some people who drink water containing inorganic mercury well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience kidney damage.
  




























































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